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Dr. Igbinosa- TWAS and IFS grantee

Dr. Etinosa O. Igbinosa
Grant Holder: Dr. Etinosa O. Igbinosa

Department: Microbiology

Faculty: Life Sciences

Year 2014-2016

Research Grant number: 14-091RG/BIO/AF/AC_I – UNESCO FR: 324028575.

Title of project: Molecular characterization of clinically important bacterial pathogens from environmental, veterinary and agricultural sources in southern region of Nigeria

Role in project: Principal investigator

Value of Grant: $14,500 additional funds $3,230.00

Status:  Project On-going

Project description

Antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable outcome of the evolutionary principle that organisms will mutate to escape lethal selective pressure. The emergence and evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is one of the major challenges facing global public health policies. Antibiotic use in clinical, veterinary and agricultural practices has been the major selective force for emergence and spreading of resistant strains and resistance genes in the environment. Bacterial resistance in clinically important pathogens has reached alarming rates and exerts a significant impact on clinical outcomes. This phenomenon is longer confined to the hospital setting alone and will continue to worsen if not properly addressed. However, some opportunistic pathogens are intrinsically resistant to a number of antimicrobial classes. These tend to be of environmental origin and their intrinsic drug resistance determinants. As long as antibiotics are used to kill bacteria, resistance will continue to emerge. The environment has been recognized as a major reservoir for multidrug resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, improved surveillance and infection control program; properly use of antibiotics; new prevention measures; and new therapeutic strategies to combat resistant bacteria remain essential to mitigate this global threat. In this study focus will be on detection and characterization of clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria, namely Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Vibrio, Salmonella, and Aermonas species from clinical (hospital drains environment) and nonclinical environments (abattoir drains, food-animals and aquaculture). This study will involve the use of combination of culture dependent and culture independent techniques to assess the species diversity, antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and virulence signatures of the isolates. These findings will provide health personnel and policy makers with baseline information needed to establish appropriate infection control programmes and health intervention strategies.

IFS RESEARCH GRANT

Year: 2013-2016

Research Grant number: F/5081-2.

Title of project: Novel antimicrobial and anticancer related secondary metabolites of the aquatic Actinomyectes diversity of near-shore marine and estuarine environments in the Niger delta of Nigeria

Role in project: Principal investigator

Value of Grant: $10,000 Supplementary Grant [Amount: SEK 5289]

Status:  Project On-going

Project description

Marine prokaryotes are prolific producers of novel biologically active natural products. Many of these marine metabolites show great promise as new pharmaceutical agents to treat human ailments. In an effort to meet current needs for new antibiotics and anticancer agents, I propose to exploit the rich metabolic potential of obligate marine bacteria. There is an urgent need for the discovery of new medicines to treat recalcitrant diseases such as cancer and antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. Most medicines have traditionally been derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria or fungi, however diminishing returns from these well-studied microorganisms have fostered new efforts to explore relatively unknown resources such as the microorganisms that inhabit the marine milieu of the world. To maximize the discovery of new molecules from this resource, a better understanding of microbial diversity and the genetic basis for natural product production is now required. This project involves a detailed assessment of aquatic actinomycetes diversity of the Escravos and Warri River near-shore of the Atlantic Ocean in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The isolated actinomycetes from these locations will be screened for two important secondary metabolites of relevance to health that is, antimicrobial and anticancer compounds. Very efficient producers of these compounds will be selected and fermentation process condition for the optimization of large scale production of the metabolites will be established. Standard microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods will be applied in this study. It is expected that some novel actinomycetes species will be isolated along with the bioactive metabolites. Such actinomycetes species could become more efficient candidates for use including many that possess pharmaceutically relevant biological activities. There is a positive optimism and expectation that reasonable scientific facts would be gained at the completion of this research. This proposed study is highly favoured within the context of the indigenous knowledge system policies of governments, more so with its capacity building and development era of ravaging pathogenic and infectious diseases.